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University of Toronto

Denver Summit of the Eight

Denver, June 22, 1997


1. We, the participants in the Denver Summit of the Eight, as major industrialized democracies, have discussed the steps necessary, both internationally and domestically, to shape the forces of integration to ensure prosperity and peace for our citizens and the entire world as we approach the twenty-first century. We have agreed to work- closely with all willing partners in fostering global partnership for peace, security, and sustainable development that includes strengthening democracy, and human rights, and helping prevent and resolve conflicts.

2. Continuing the important steps we have taken, the Denver Summit of the Eight marks a new and deeper participation by Russia in our efforts. Russia has taken bold measures to complete an historic transformation into a democratic state with a market economy. We are committed to continue the trend of increased Russian participation in the work of our officials between Summits and reiterate our shared commitment to the promotion of a fuller involvement of Russia in the Summit process. Cooperation to integrate Russia's economy into the global economic system represents one of our most important priorities. We welcome the understanding reached between Russia and the Chairman of the Paris Club on the basis for Russia's participation and look forward to the Paris Club and Russia finalizing an agreement in the near future. We support the goal of early Russian accession to the WTO on the basis of conditions generally applicable to newly acceding members. We also look forward to continued Russian progress toward accession to the OECD using the potential of the recently created Liaison Committee between Russia and the OECD.

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Economic and Social Issues

3. The process of globalization, a major factor underlying the growth of world prosperity in the last fifty years, is now advancing rapidly and broadly. Globalization encompasses the expansion of cross-border flows of ideas and information, goods and services, technology and capital. More openness and integration across the global economy create opportunities for increased prosperity as countries specialize in those economic activities which they do best, while also promoting increased competition and efficiency, and the rapid spread of technological innovations. Our task, as we enter the 21st Century, is to make the most of these opportunities.

4. At the same time, globalization may create new challenges. The increasing openness and interdependence of our economies, with deep trade linkages and ever greater flows of private capital, means that problems in one country can spill over more easily to affect the rest. We must cooperate to promote global growth and prosperity. We must also insure that a I segments of society, and indeed all countries across the globe, have the opportunity to share in the prosperity made possible by global integration and technological innovations. It is particularly important that young adults see the path to a successful life, and be adequately prepared to follow that path.

5. Rapid technological change and demographic shifts are also having an important impact on the global economy. We must take advantage of the possibilities for growth to address unemployment and economic insecurity. Sound economic policies and the structural reforms necessary to allow markets to function properly are essential if we are to meet the many domestic and international challenges we all face. Measures that expand the availability of high quality education and training and increase the responsiveness of labor markets to economic conditions will aid the ability of our people to adjust to all types of structural changes. We look forward to the high-level conference on employment that takes place this fall in Japan, which is expected to contribute to the discussion on responses to structural changes. We also welcome the proposal by the United Kingdom to host a conference of ministers responsible for finance and social affairs early next year on growth, employability, and inclusion, to prepare for further discussion of these vital issues at our meeting next year.

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The Opportunities and Challenges of Aging Populations

6. Increased life expectancy and improved health among our elderly are two major achievements of this century. In the next century, these successes will present us with both opportunities and challenges, as longer life expectancies and lower birth rates significantly raise the proportion of seniors in our countries' populations. Prime Minister Hashimoto's "Initiative for a Caring World" has provided us the opportunity to focus on the implications of these developments.

7. We discussed the idea of "active aging" -- the desire and ability of many older people to continue work or other socially productive activities well into their later years, and agreed that old stereotypes of seniors as dependent should be abandoned. We considered new evidence suggesting that disability rates among seniors have declined in some countries while recognizing the wide variation in the health of older people. We discussed how our nations can promote active aging of our older citizens with due regard to their individual choices and circumstances, including removing disincentives to labor force participation and lowering barriers to flexible and part- time employment that exist in some countries. In addition, we discussed the transition from work to retirement, life-long learning and ways to encourage volunteerism and to support family care- giving.

8. We examined the differing implications of population aging for our nations' pension, health and long- term care systems in the next century. Active aging strategies can be a useful way to advance structural reforms in the areas of health and social welfare. Some of our countries face major challenges in sustaining their public pension systems and would benefit from early action to restore balance. Different ways were suggested to address this issue, including increasing the labor force participation of seniors and raising national savings rates. Investing in human capital, including maximizing opportunities for life-long learning, were mentioned as ways to facilitate the continued work preparedness of mature adults. Some countries will be more affected by the demands of health care financing for seniors. We concluded that efficient and effective management of this challenge should help us to meet the needs of an aging society without overburdening younger generations.

9. We agreed that it is important to learn from one another how our policies and programs can promote active aging and advance structural reforms to preserve and strengthen our pension, health and long-term care systems. Our governments will work together, within the OECD and with other international organizations, to promote active aging through information exchanges and cross-national research. We encourage collaborative biomedical and behavioral research to improve active life expectancy and reduce disability, and have directed our officials to identify gaps in our knowledge and explore developing comparable data in our nations to improve our capacity to address the challenges of population aging into the 21st Century.

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Small and Medium Enterprises

10. The contributions of small and medium-sized enterprises to employment and economic dynamism in our societies are widely recognized. Fostering a business setting conducive to the growth of dynamic young enterprises is a key to job creation. In our discussion, we surveyed the obstacles to such growth, including the unavailability of debt or equity capital at critical stages of a firm's growth, unnecessary regulation, difficulties adopting existing innovative technologies, and the problems of smaller businesses in entering global markets. We stress the need to remove these obstacles. We also examined some exemplary practices within our countries to promote the growth of small and medium-sized companies, as well as vocational training and education within these companies, and considered how we might benefit from these successes. Best practices in our countries could also be useful examples for developing and transition-market economies, as development of small and medium-sized enterprises favors creation of jobs and social stability, disseminates entrepreneurial capacities and helps to promote and diversify exports. We will pursue our work in other areas.

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Global Issues

11. Even as global integration and rapid advances in communications and transportation have spurred economic growth, these same trends have exposed us to complex problems that defy unilateral solutions. In recent years our Summits have devoted increasing attention to our cooperative efforts to confront these problems.

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12. This is a pivotal year for efforts to promote sustainable development and protect the environment. We are determined to address the environmental challenges that will affect the quality of life of future generations and to enhance public awareness, especially among our youth, of the importance of advancing sustainable development goals.

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UN General Assembly Special Session

13. We discussed the progress that has been made since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit in defining and promoting sustainable development, and we commit ourselves to taking action in areas critical to advancing this agenda. Sustainable development demands the full integration of environment, economic and social policies; should be based upon democratic governance and respect for human rights; and should have poverty eradication as one of its ultimate objectives. In this connection, we reaffirm the vital contribution of civil society. We urge the United Nations General Assembly, at its Special Session to be held next week, to reaffirm and give impetus to the Rio commitments, to take stock of implementation since Rio, and, most importantly, to develop a manageable list of priority issues to address in future work on sustainable development.

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Climate Change

14. Overwhelming scientific evidence links the build-up of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere to changes in the global climate system. If current trends continue into the next century, unacceptable impacts on human health and the global environment are likely. Reversing these trends will require a sustained global effort over several decades, with the involvement of all our citizens, and changes in our patterns of consumption and production.

15. We are determined to take the lead and show seriousness of purpose in strengthening international efforts to confront climate change. Our ultimate goal must be to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses at an acceptable level. This will require efficient and cost-effective policies and measures sufficient to lead to a significant reduction in emissions.

16. International cooperation will be essential. At the Third Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto we must forge a strong agreement that is consistent with the Berlin Mandate and that contains quantified and legally-binding emission targets. We intend to commit to meaningful, realistic and equitable targets that will result in reductions of greenhouse gas emissions by 2010. The agreement must ensure transparency and accountability and allow Participants flexibility in the manner in which they meet their targets.

17. Action by developed countries alone will not be sufficient to meet this goal. Developing countries must also take measurable steps, recognizing that their obligations will increase as their economies grow. We agree to work in partnership with them to that effect by implementing technological development and diffusion and supporting environmental education and capacity building.

18. We stress the importance of setting up an appropriate mechanism for monitoring and ensuring compliance among Parties. We also agree to work together to enhance international efforts to further develop global systems for monitoring climate change and other environmental trends.

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19. Forests continue to be destroyed and degraded at alarming rates ' in many parts of the world. To reverse this trend, we call upon all countries to make a long-term political commitment to achieve sustainable forest management practices worldwide and to 'join us in the immediate implementation of proposals put forward by the UNCSD Intergovernmental Panel on Forests. We have discussed in Denver and have agreed to support a practical Action Program that includes implementing national programs and building capacity for sustainable forest management; establishing networks of protected areas; assessing the state of each nation's forests using agreed criteria and indicators; promoting private sector management of forests; and eliminating illegal logging. We ask that our officials meet early next year to assess progress in implementing this Action Program and call for a report at our next meeting.

20. At the Special Session of the United Nations, we will work with the active involvement of environmental groups to build consensus on an international agreement with appropriately high international standards to achieve these goals. We welcome the progress made in implementing the Brazil Pilot Program initiated in Houston, and see it as an example of practical international cooperation.

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21. Many people throughout the world do not have access to safe water. Increased human, industrial and agricultural wastes can diminish water quality, with adverse effects for ecosystems and human health and safety, particularly for children. The Special Session of the UN General Assembly should encourage the CSD to develop a practical plan of action to address freshwater-related issues, including promotion of efficient water use, improvement of water quality and sanitation, technological development and capacity building, public awareness and institutional improvements. To achieve these objectives, we have also agreed to promote bilateral and regional cooperation on freshwater concerns, and to enhance coordination of our efforts in this area.

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22. We must strengthen our efforts to protect the world's oceans. We will work to ensure an effective and integrated effort to deal with key issues, including sustainable fishing, shipping, marine pollution from land- based and off-shore activities, and oil spill prevention and emergency response. In this connection, we will also enhance cooperation in monitoring the ecology in the Northern Pacific, as well as in forecasting earthquakes and tsunamis in this region.

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23. We welcome the entry into force of the "Convention to Combat Desertification," and urge the parties to develop concrete steps to implement the convention at the First Conference of the Parties this Fall in Rome.

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Environmental Standards for Export Credit Agencies

24. Private sector financial flows from industrial nations have a significant impact on sustainable development worldwide. Governments should help promote sustainable practices by taking environmental factors into account when providing financing support for investment in infrastructure and equipment. We attach importance to the work on this in the OECD, and 'will review progress at our meeting next year.

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Children's Environmental Health

25. Protecting the health of our children is a shared fundamental value. Children throughout the world face significant threats to their health from an array of environmental hazards, and we recognize particular vulnerabilities of children to environmental threats. Our governments will explicitly incorporate children into environmental risk assessments and standard setting and together will work to strengthen information exchange, provide for microbiologically safe drinking water, and reduce children's exposure to lead, environmental tobacco smoke and other air pollutants.

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26. Strong international institutions are essential to coordinating global efforts to protect the environment and to achieve sustainable development.

27. The UNGA Special Session should confirm the role of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) as the strategic forum for integrating the social, environmental and economic aspects of sustainable development. The CSD should develop action plans with concrete objectives and timetables to guide its work in the four agreed priority areas: freshwater; oceans; land resources, including forests; and sustainable energy use.

28. To ensure an effective response to urgent global environmental problems, we have supported the refocused mandate for the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the leading global environmental authority, as affirmed by the UNEP Governing Council in Nairobi this year. UNEP should promote the coherent implementation of environmental protection within the UN system and serve as an authoritative advocate for the global environment. The newly formed High-level Committee of Environment Ministers and Officials should consider the international environmental agenda and elaborate upon and advance the reforms needed to ensure UNEP's effectiveness, with a particular emphasis on greater policy, program and financial accountability. We look forward to a revitalized UNEP being able to attract the resources needed for its tasks.

29. Further efforts are necessary to ensure the long-term coherence and efficiency of the UN's work on the environment. We encourage the Secretary General to review the handling of environmental matters within the UN system and to explore possible means and structures to improve further the coordination among, and effectiveness of, the concerned institutions.

30. We reaffirm the importance of the Global Environmental Facility as the leading multilateral funding mechanism for the global environment. We will work to strengthen its finances and enhance its effectiveness. In this regard, we will each do our part to contribute to a successful replenishment of the Facility.

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Infectious Diseases

31. Infectious diseases, including drug-resistant tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS are responsible for a third of all deaths in the world. They pose significant challenges to the health, security and financial resources of the global community. In many parts of the world, infectious diseases and deaths from infectious disease have 'risen sharply in the last decade for a variety of reasons, including the emergence of drug-resistant microbes and the increased movement of people and products.

32. In the coming year, our governments will promote more effective coordination of international responses to outbreaks; promote development of a global surveillance network, building upon existing national and regional surveillance systems; and help to build public health capacity to prevent, detect and control infectious diseases globally including efforts to explore the use of regional stocks of essential vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics and other materials. Central to this work will be strengthening and linking existing activities in and among each of our countries, with developing countries, and in other fora, especially the World Health Organization. We support the efforts of the WHO and the recent World Health Assembly resolutions regarding the quality of biological and pharmaceutical products.

33. Preventing the transmission of HIV infection and the development of AIDS is an urgent global public health imperative. While other prevention and treatment methods must be pursued, in the long term the development of safe, accessible, and effective vaccines against AIDS holds the best chance of limiting, and eventually eliminating, the threat of this disease. We will work to provide the resources necessary to accelerate AIDS vaccine research, and together will enhance international scientific cooperation and collaboration. Cooperation among scientists and governments in the developed and developing world and international agencies will be critical. We call on other states to join us in this endeavor.

34. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) must help expand the scale and quality of the response to HIV/AIDS. As a group and with others, we will work to assure that it has resources adequate to fulfill its mandate.

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Nuclear Safety

35. We reaffirm our commitments from the 1996 Moscow Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security to give an absolute priority to safety in the use of nuclear energy. We note that further substantial progress is still required in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States, especially by strengthening regulatory authorities, enhancing reactor safety and improving safety culture. We consider further joint efforts to this end a major priority. In this regard, we attach the greatest importance to the full implementation of the Nuclear Safety Account agreements.

36. We note with satisfaction the entry into force by the Nuclear Safety Convention and the preparations now underway for the first review meeting to be held in April 1999. We applaud the rapid progress made in developing the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management and encourage finalization. We welcome the forthcoming adoption of the Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage and of a new Supplementary Funding Convention. These conventions will facilitate international safety cooperation and provide for increased compensation for victims in the event of a nuclear accident.

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Global Energy Issues

37. We decided to convene a ministerial on energy issues in Moscow next year, and request our officials to start preparations for such a meeting. Its results will be discussed at our next Summit.

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Transnational Organized Crime

38. Our efforts to combat transnational crime will be a priority of the group for the foreseeable future. Transnational criminal groups can often adapt to global change more swiftly and efficiently than our governments. International crime not only threatens our citizens, but also undermines young democracies and nations in transition.

39. Last year, we adopted the Lyon forty recommendations to combat transnational organized crime. We have substantially implemented those recommendations, taking action within our own borders and with one another. Together, we have strengthened cooperation bilaterally, multilaterally, and with other nations and groups to bring criminals to justice through mutual legal assistance and extradition, to promote cooperation among our law enforcement agencies, to strengthen document security and improve strategies to combat alien smuggling, and to prevent illegal trafficking in firearms.

40. We must intensify our efforts to implement the Lyon recommendations. In the coming year we will focus on two areas of critical concern: First, the investigation, prosecution, and punishment of high-tech criminals, such as those tampering with computer and telecommunications technology, across national borders; Second, a system to provide all governments the technical and legal capabilities to respond to high- tech crimes, regardless of where the criminals may be located.

41. We also will develop additional methods to secure our borders. Border security is central to all efforts to fight transnational crime, drug-trafficking and terrorism. To this end, we will combat illegal firearms trafficking, by considering a new international instrument. We will seek to adopt standard systems for firearms identification and a stronger international regime for import and export licensing of firearms. We will continue our work to strengthen document security, and improve strategies to combat alien smuggling, attacking the problem at the source and transit the destination countries. Our governments will also move further ahead with efforts to strengthen international legal regimes for extradition and mutual legal assistance, to ensure that no criminal receives safe haven anywhere in the world.

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Illicit Drugs

42. We are determined to intensify our efforts to combat the production, trafficking and use of illicit drugs, which represent a global threat to the safety of our citizens, and the well-being of our societies and institutions. Reaffirming the common responsibility of all concerned States, we recognize that a successful strategy to combat illicit drugs requires effective action against both the supply and the demand for such drugs. We stress the importance of demand reduction. Together with strict enforcement of drug-related laws, programs aimed at treatment and rehabilitation, education and prevention are of major importance in our fight against drugs.

43. We have asked our appropriate government agencies to build on their established patterns of cooperation to address this common threat. In particular, we will study mechanisms that would assist in the development of healthy, drug-free economies in all States; support further efforts to share relevant information on money-laundering, chemical precursors, new synthetic drugs, trafficking patterns and methods, and other data; and will work together to strengthen the capabilities of law enforcement institutions to combat illicit drugs. Our governments will work together to develop the agenda for the UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs in June 1998.

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44. We reaffirm our determination to combat terrorism in all forms, irrespective of motive. We oppose concessions to terrorist demands and are determined to deny hostage-takers any benefits from their acts. We welcome the growing consensus on adopting effective and legitimate means of countering terrorism.

45. Last year, our Ministers adopted twenty-five recommendations to combat terrorism. We have received a positive response worldwide, in particular in the UN General Assembly. Together we have made substantial progress on many of these recommendations, including: drafting and negotiating a UN convention on terrorist bombing; promoting improved international standards for airport security, explosives detection, and vehicle identification; promoting stronger laws and export controls on the manufacture, trade and transport of explosives; initiating a directory of counter-terrorism competencies; inviting all States to promote the use of encryption which may allow, consistent with OECD guidelines, lawful government access to combat terrorism.

46. We have asked our Ministers to intensify diplomatic efforts to ensure that by the year 2000 all States join the international counterterrorism conventions specified in the 1996 UN resolution on measures to counter terrorism. We have instructed our officials to take additional steps: to strengthen the capability of hostage negotiation experts and counterterrorism response units; to exchange information on technologies to detect and deter the use of materials of mass destruction in terrorist attacks; to develop means to deter terrorist attacks on electronic and computer infrastructure; to strengthen maritime security; to exchange information on security practices for international special events; and to strengthen and expand international cooperation and consultation.

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Human Cloning

47. We agree on the need for appropriate domestic measures and close international cooperation to prohibit the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer to create a child.

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Space Station

48. We look forward to the signing of the Agreement to establishing an international space station. This is an excellent example of international cooperation in carrying out large and promising projects in the field of exploration and peaceful uses of outer space.

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United Nations Reform

49. We reaffirm the crucial role of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security and in fostering global partnership and sustainable development. We support thorough-going reform, with the goal of strengthening the UN. We welcome progress that has occurred in the economic and social fields since our meetings in Halifax and Lyon. In this regard, we welcome Secretary General Kofi Annan's recent reform proposals and support their rapid implementation; we also look forward to the Secretary General's more extensive proposals next month. We remain committed to working with all UN members to realize these reforms.

50. In order for the UN to cope with the challenges of the 21st century, financial reform should proceed together with necessary reform measures in other areas. The UN system must be placed on a firm financial footing through full and timely payment of obligations, and development of a more logical and equitable scale of assessments. Budgets throughout the UN system should be scrutinized with emphasis on prioritization and maximum operating efficiency. We look forward to the Secretary General's specific proposals for reinvesting savings from improved cost-effectiveness in high priority development programs. Robust oversight mechanisms and sound personnel policies are essential for success.

51. The urgent challenges of economic and social development require the UN to coordinate more effectively the policies and activities of its various bodies including the specialized agencies. To this end, the UN's Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), supported by the Under Secretary General for economic and social issues, should strengthen its policy and coordination role, in particular through streamlining its subsidiary bodies and improving its working relationship with international financial institutions and the WTO. We welcome the recent reforms in the governance of the funds and programs as well as in the various UN bodies, in particular at UNCTAD and in the regional commissions; these efforts should be sustained and expanded.

52. We call for a thorough and urgent review of the UN's funds and programs, as well as a system-wide review of the roles and mandates of specialized agencies and commissions. We welcome the Secretary General's recommendations for strengthened integration at the country level and better coordination at headquarters. In this context, we recommend the UN undertake performance evaluations of the coordination of its development activities in a range of representative countries. We expect the least developed countries to be the principal beneficiaries of improved efficiency in the UN's development work.

53. We reaffirm that the UN must further improve its ability to act quickly and effectively to address threats to international peace and security. We will continue to help develop the capacities of the UN in preventing and resolving conflicts. We support steps taken recently by the UN to strengthen its capacity for rapid reaction from the early warning stage to the stage of rapid deployment of new, approved, peacekeeping operations and urge continued improvements in these areas.

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Africa: Partnership for Development

54. At Lyon, we initiated a New Global Partnership for Development, noting- both that developing countries have a fundamental responsibility for promoting their own development, and that developed countries must support these efforts. We paid particular attention to the problems of Sub-Saharan African countries, many of which continue to face unusually severe challenges. This year, we aim to translate the principles of that Partnership into new concrete action to support the efforts of African countries to participate fully in the expansion of global prosperity and to spread the benefits throughout their societies. Our objective is not only to facilitate the progressive integration of African countries into the world economy, but also to foster the integration of poor populations into economic, social and political life of their countries.

55. We are encouraged by positive developments, including the adoption of democratic and economic reforms in many Sub-Saharan African countries. Since 1990, more than twenty African nations have held free and fair elections. Democratic governance and the rule of law, in Africa as elsewhere, lay the foundation for human rights, including the rights of women, and sustainable development. We commend those African countries that have set an example by undertaking democratic reforms, improving rule of law and administration of justice, avoiding unproductive expenditures (including excessive military expenditures), and strengthening public institutions and civil society. We will support African efforts to promote democracy and good governance, improve the integrity of public institutions, enhance the transparency of government spending, in particular of procurement, and develop national anti-bribery regulations.

56. Increased prosperity ultimately depends upon creating an environment for domestic capital formation, private sector-led growth and successful integration into global markets. We are encouraged by the increasing number of Sub-Saharan countries that have made progress toward financial sustainability through fiscal and financial practices and have adopted growth and market oriented economic policies, including trade liberalization and investment climate improvement. These initiatives have produced a welcome acceleration of growth since 1994. We expect the international financial institutions to play an important role in supporting reform in Sub-Saharan African countries. Their support should help to promote productive foreign direct investment and domestic capital formation. We look forward to the IFIs reporting on their efforts by the time of the Hong Kong World Bank/IMF meetings.

57. Access to our markets is a crucial tool for fostering economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. We each will continue to improve, through various means, access to our markets for African exports. We support the further integration of the least developed countries into the world trading system. In this regard, African countries will be major beneficiaries of efforts in the WTO on a plan of action to promote capacity building and to provide predictable and favorable market access conditions for least developed countries. We are committed to the effective implementation of this plan and intend to participate actively in the high-level WTO/UNCTAD/International Trade Center meeting later this year. Furthermore, trade liberalization by African countries will promote more efficient utilization of resources. We also welcome African initiatives for regional trade liberalization and economic cooperation.

58. We will consider ways to enhance opportunities for the Sub-Saharan African countries that need them most and are undertaking effective reform measures. We will review our own bilateral aid and trade promotion programs to ensure that they support climates conducive to economic growth and private investment, including by strengthening capacity.

59. Substantial flows of official development assistance will continue to play an essential role in building the capacity of Sub-Saharan African countries to achieve their sustainable development objectives. We are committed to a results-oriented approach to development policy, with the particular goal of combating extreme poverty. But development assistance alone cannot overcome inappropriate policies. We will work with African countries to ensure adequate and well-targeted assistance for those countries which have the greatest need and carry out the necessary broad-based reforms. This assistance will include support for democratic governance, respect for human rights, sound public administration, efficient legal and judicial systems, infrastructure development, rural development, food security, environmental protection and human resource development, including health and education of their people. In this regard, we will work to strengthen cooperation among concerned institutes to facilitate and coordinate capacity building efforts.

60. To maximize the effectiveness of our efforts, we will deepen the dialogue with African partners, work for greater local ownership of development strategies and encourage the participation of non-governmental actors. We will also strengthen donor coordination, including with emerging donors. We welcome and fully support the emerging trend of intraregional and inter-regional cooperation to further African development.

61. The United Nations plays a major role in development in Africa, and African countries will be major beneficiaries of reform of the UN economic and social development activities. We encourage the UN's development funds and programs and specialized agencies, to emphasize work in the field in Africa and to fully integrate and coordinate their efforts, both at the headquarters and at the country level. We are encouraged by the Economic Commission on Africa's efforts to energize and focus its activities. The UN Development Program's decision to allocate a portion of its resources based on program quality is a useful approach to assuring effectiveness, and we urge that it be adopted more broadly in the UN's work.

62. A number of African countries are making impressive efforts to harness the information revolution in support of democracy and sustainable development. We welcome the Africa Information Society Initiative. We support their efforts to establish information networks to link African countries with each other and to the rest of the world. In this regard, we welcome the Toronto Global Knowledge '97 Conference.

63. We applaud African leadership in developing effective local capacities in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and post-conflict reconciliation and recovery. We will support African peacebuilding initiatives at the regional, sub-regional and national levels, in particular by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), taking into account the recent OECD Guidelines on Conflict, Peace, and Development Cooperation, and we will help to forge active partnerships with the United Nations and other donors. We encourage the UN Secretary General, as part of his reform efforts, to identify ways the international community can further strengthen Africa's initiatives. We also call for the expanded utilization of the existing UN Trust Fund for African peacekeeping and conflict prevention, as well as other relevant UN funds; and broader and substantial donor commitments to the OAU and to subregional bodies with specialized mechanisms for conflict mediation, as well as to the UN/OAU Special Envoy to the Great Lakes.

64. We express our support for long-term efforts to promote rapidly deployable African peacekeeping capacities. We welcome closer coordination among African troop- contributing countries, regional and subregional organizations, donors, and the UN in the development of training, joint exercises, common peacekeeping doctrine, and other efforts to ensure interoperability. We also welcome recent progress towards the establishment of an African Peacekeeping Support Group at the UN, and we urge interested countries to actively explore mechanisms for coordination of practical activities.

65. We express our grave concern at the recent attacks against refugees as well as against personnel of refugee and humanitarian organizations. We emphasize that host States must prevent such acts and prosecute the perpetrators.

66. We have requested that our officials report to us prior to next year's Summit about the efforts they have undertaken together to implement all aspects of this partnership.

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Political Issues

67. Together, we are pursuing a strategy of global integration to create a more secure and stable international community. Already, we have used our political cooperation to broaden and deepen the community of open markets and open societies, and in the next year we will work together to build on these efforts. Our Partnership for Development is designed explicitly to support the economic and political development of nations which run the risk of being marginalized from the process of integration. We will focus our energies on strengthening adherence to the norms and principles of international cooperation, and will work together to take effective measures against those who threaten those objectives. We recognize our common interest and responsibility in helping bring an end to conflicts that threaten to disturb international peace and to undermine our deepened cooperation.

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Democracy and Human Rights

68. Recent years have seen an unprecedented growth of democracy worldwide. Yet young democratic states can be fragile and short-lived. We have a responsibility and opportunity to further strengthen democratic values and fundamental freedoms where they have taken hold and extend their reach where they have not.

69. Human rights are at the heart of our concerns. Ensuring accountability for violations of human rights and international humanitarian law is essential to promote conflict resolution and peace. The new UN High Commissioner for Human Rights will have a crucial role to play. We will continue to give full support to the International Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and work to ensure that the international community and States concerned bring to justice through due process persons responsible for violations of human rights and international humanitarian law.

70. Recognizing that strengthening democracy is essential to strengthening peace and human rights, and looking to the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1998, we will work together in the coming year to build on our governments' most effective democratic development, peacebuilding and human rights programs. Our efforts will focus on promoting good governance and the rule of law, strengthening civil society, expanding women's political participation, and boosting business and labor support for democracy, particularly in young democracies and societies in conflict. The protection of the most underrepresented or vulnerable is critical to broaden participation in the democratic process and prevent societal conflict. We will work to ensure adoption and ratification of .international instruments designed to provide protection to these groups, in particular the speedy adoption of an International Labor Organization Convention on the eradication of intolerable forms of child labor. We will work through multilateral and regional organizations, particularly with the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD as well as in partnership with nongovernmental organizations and young democracies. We also will consider common efforts to promote democracy where it is not now established.

71. We have asked our Ministers to pursue these efforts and to make recommendations for consideration at our next Summit.

72. Democracy, economic growth and development cannot reach their full potential without good governance, in particular the accountability of political leaders and public servants, especially for corruption. We will actively work to eliminate corruption in aid-funded procurement. We will take prompt steps to criminalize, in an effective and coordinated manner, bribery of foreign public officials, and to implement previous undertakings on the tax-deductibility of such bribes. We call upon all other countries to do the same.

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Non-proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament

73. Since the Moscow Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security, we have taken important steps to implement the agreed "Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit Trafficking in Nuclear Materials." We will expand participation in this program to include countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and in Central Asia and the Caucasus.

74. Further regarding the safe and effective management of fissile material, with respect to such materials no longer required for defense purposes, we will continue our cooperation through concrete initiatives, in particular the French-German-Russian project to build a pilot plant in Russia to produce MOX fuel from weapons plutonium, which is open to additional states, and the related U.S.-Russian cooperation on the conversion of weapons plutonium.

75. We have worked together to advance our common non-proliferation, arms control, and disarmament goals. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is an historic milestone, and we call upon all States to sign and ratify it rapidly to ensure its early entry into force. We welcome the entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention. We advocate its full, effective and universal implementation, and look forward to the early ratification of the Convention by the States that have not yet done so. Recognizing that enhancing confidence in compliance would reinforce the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, we reaffirm our determination to complete as soon as possible through negotiation a legally-binding and effective verification mechanism.

76. We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to full implementation of the objectives set forth in the Non- Proliferation Treaty. To that end, we welcome the IAEA's recent adoption of a program on strengthening the effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the safeguards system. We urge all States to conclude additional protocols with the IAEA at the earliest possible date. We reaffirm our commitment to the immediate commencement and early conclusion of a convention banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

77. We welcome the progress on strategic arms control made at Helsinki in March, and look forward to the early entry-into-force of the START II agreement and the initiation of START III negotiations. We reaffirm the key role of the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty in strengthening European security, and welcome the decision to conclude its adaptation as expeditiously as possible. We welcome the recent agreement among Russia, Kazakstan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, and China on reduction of military forces along their borders and consider it an important contribution to the region's security.

78. We endorse unequivocally efforts by the UN Special Commission and the IAEA to eliminate weapons of mass destruction capabilities in Iraq and to monitor compliance. We reaffirm the importance of implementing the U.S.-DPRK Agreed Framework and full compliance by North Korea with its non- proliferation obligations. We therefore place great value on the continuing role of the IAEA in monitoring the freeze on North Korea's nuclear program, implementing safeguards, and helping preserve all information relating to the DPRK's past activity. We welcome the conclusion of negotiations for the EU to participate in the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) and call for further international support for KEDO, including the provision of funds. We stress the importance of Four Party talks and the necessity of North-South dialogue. We call on North Korea to halt its development, deployment and export of ballistic missiles.

79. We welcome the emerging high-level dialogue between India and Pakistan. We encourage both countries to bring their activities into conformity with international non-proliferation norms. Consistent with our support for the CTBT's early entry into force, we encourage both countries to adhere to that treaty.

80. We recognize that global security and stability are strengthened by promoting international responsibility in the transfer of arms and sensitive technologies, and to that end reaffirm our support for the Wassenaar Arrangement. We welcome the steady achievements under the UN Register of Conventional Arms in promoting transparency in armaments. We encourage the work of the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms to identify the ways and means to prevent and reduce the excessive and destabilizing transfer of small arms and light weapons and we will continue to work together to curb illegal trafficking in firearms.

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Export Control Regimes

81. We underline our support for the arrangements that make up the international export control regimes. The Zangger Committee and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Missile Technology Control Regime, and, for those who are members, the Australia Group export control regime, all contribute critically to the global application and enforcement of international export control norms.

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Anti-personnel Landmines

82. Last year we committed ourselves to spare no effort in securing a global ban on antipersonnel landmines. To this end, we note the useful and complementary efforts in a variety of fora, including at the Conference on Disarmament and in formal negotiations to take place in Oslo in September through the Ottawa Process which has set the goal of achieving such a ban before the end of the year. We welcome the restrictions on anti- personnel landmines unilaterally declared by States, including by the members of the EU. We reaffirm the UN General Assembly resolution, approved overwhelmingly, calling for concluding an effective, legally-binding international agreement to ban anti-personnel landmines as soon as possible. All States should adhere to the strengthened Protocol on Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices. We encourage the international community to develop technological solutions to mine detection and clearance, and to strengthen its support for humanitarian demining and assistance to mine victims.

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Political Situations

Hong Kong

83. We recognize the historic nature of China's imminent resumption of sovereignty over Hong Kong. Considering our durable interests in this financial and economic center, we welcome and place weight on China's commitments, contained in the 1984 UK-PRC Joint Declaration and in the 1990 PRC Basic Law. These include ensuring Hong Kong's continued stability and prosperity and preserving its way of life, its high degree of autonomy -- including an independent monetary and economic system -- its fundamental freedoms and the rule of law. These will provide the essential underpinnings for Hong Kong's future economic success. We look forward to democratic elections in Hong Kong for a new legislature as soon as possible. We take serious note of China's assurances in the Joint Declaration and Basic Law that the provisions of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights will continue to apply in Hong Kong.

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Middle East

84. The Peace Process faces a crisis, and we are determined to reinject momentum into it. Restoring the sense of security and confidence among Israelis and Palestinians is essential.

We shall do our utmost to reinvigorate implementation of the Oslo Accords and to uphold the principles of Madrid, including the exchange of land for peace. All the problems need to be addressed peacefully through serious and credible negotiations. Both sides must refrain from actions that impede the peace process by preempting permanent status negotiations. We believe strongly in the importance of working with Israel, Syria and Lebanon to resume direct talks in order to achieve a comprehensive settlement in the region. We welcome the important role the Monitoring Group has played in strengthening the Understanding of April 26, 1996 and in reducing risks to civilians in southern Lebanon and in Israel. We affirm the importance of the activities within the multilateral framework of the peace process.

85. Economic growth and prosperity are critical to peace. We urge regional parties to pursue economic cooperation among themselves and integration into the global economy. We welcome all efforts to promote the region's development of viable and sustainable economies, including assistance to the Palestinians, and urge donors to fulfill pledges made.

86. We have noted with interest the results of the recent elections in Iran and renew our call upon the Government of Iran to play a constructive role in regional and world affairs. In this regard, while noting the role Iran played in inter-Tajik talks in conjunction with the United Nations and other regional parties, we call upon the Government of Iran to desist from material and political support for extremist groups that are seeking to destroy the Middle East peace process and to destabilize the region. We further call upon the Iranian Government to respect the human rights of all Iranian citizens and to renounce the use of terrorism, including against Iranian citizens living abroad, and, in that connection, to desist from endorsing the continued threat to the life of Mr. Salman Rushdie and other people associated with his work. We call on all States to avoid cooperation with Iran that might contribute to efforts to acquire nuclear weapons capabilities, or to enhance chemical, biological, or missile capabilities in violation of international conventions or arrangements.

87. We confirm our determination to obtain full compliance with all UN Security Council resolutions related to Iraq and Libya. Only full compliance with these resolutions could result in the lifting of sanctions. We are pleased to note that the distribution of food and medicine under UNSCR 986 is providing some humanitarian relief to the Iraqi people.

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88. The Cyprus dispute has remained unresolved for far too long. We fully support the mission of good offices of the United Nations Secretary General on Cyprus aimed at engaging the two Cypriot communities in negotiations to achieve a comprehensive settlement in accordance with relevant UN Resolutions and high-level agreements. We strongly endorse the Secretary General's recent invitation to the leaders of both communities and call on them to approach negotiations constructively and in good faith. We call upon the governments of Turkey and Greece to do everything possible to contribute to a solution of the Cyprus problem and to work towards solving their bilateral disputes with regard to the Aegean through early meetings of "Wise Men."

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89. Noting the situation in Albania and its implications for regional stability, we express our appreciation to those organizations and institutions, acting within the coordinating framework of the OSCE under the strong leadership of Franz Vranitzky -- especially the EU as well as the WEU, UNHCR and Red Cross -- that are working with the Government of National Reconciliation to restore normalcy in the country. We applaud the deployment of the Multinational Protection Force under Italian leadership and the authority of the UN Security Council. We underscore the need for the Albanian parties to work together to ensure that the elections reinforce democracy and thereafter work to reestablish order and public safety, pursue economic reform, and create a sound financial system.

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Next Summit

90. We have accepted the invitation of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to meet in Birmingham on 15-17 May next year.

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Source: Released at the Denver Summit of the Eight

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