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June 17, 1995
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1. In this 50th anniversary of the end of the Second World War and the birth of the United Nations, we discussed in a spirit of cooperation political issues of global importance. Noting with satisfaction what has been achieved through reconciliation and cooperation, we confirmed our desire to work together ever more closely in finding solutions.
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2. We reaffirm our commitment to the UN, whose Charter lays down the fundamental principles for an international order based on peace and security, sustainable development, and respect for human rights. We support measures to strengthen the UN, which is called upon to play an ever more important role in the post Cold War period, and will work with other Member States to build, through concrete reforms of the institutions, a more effective and efficient organization to meet the challenges of the next half-century. We call upon Member States to meet their financial obligations and urge early agreement on reform of the system of assessment.
3. The United Nations must be able to act more quickly and effectively to address threats to international peace and security. We, for our part, are determined to coordinate more closely our individual efforts to assist in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts. A high priority should be placed on the early warning of crises, political mediation and, in accordance with realistic mandates, the rapid deployment of UN civilian and military personnel, including peacekeepers, to areas of conflict. We encourage further efforts to improve operational planning and procedures for peacekeeping missions as well as to modernize command and control equipment, logistical arrangements and facilities. We also stress the need for measures to ensure the security of UN personnel, including the early entry into force of the recently-adopted UN Convention for the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. We welcome the growing role of regional organizations and arrangements in building stability and security, in the prevention and management of conflicts, and we attach special importance to reinforcing cooperation between such organizations and the United Nations.
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4. We welcome the indefinite extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the commitment of States party to the universalisation of the Treaty as well as their decisions to strengthen the review process and adopt a set of principles and objectives for non-proliferation and disarmament. The entry into force of START I is a major landmark in the process of nuclear arms control, which was greatly helped by the decision of Ukraine to accede to the NPT. We now look forward to the early ratification of START II. We support the safe and secure dismantlement of the nuclear weapons eliminated under START I and we welcome the work of the United States and Russia on measures to ensure that the fissile material from these weapons is rendered unusable for weapons purposes. The disposal of weapons-grade plutonium deserves particular attention and we encourage its further study.
5. We are encouraged by the growing international recognition of the need to complete without delay universal, comprehensive and verifiable treaties to ban nuclear weapons tests and to cut off the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices. Recognizing the continuing dangers posed worldwide by criminal diversion and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, and drawing on the decisions taken in Naples and the practical work undertaken by our experts since then, we resolve to work together to strengthen systems of control, accounting and physical security for nuclear materials; to expand our cooperation in the area of customs, law enforcement and intelligence and to strengthen through venues such as the IAEA and INTERPOL the international community's ability to combat nuclear theft and smuggling. We emphasize the importance of bringing the Chemical Weapons Convention into force at the earliest possible date, and call for rapid progress in developing verification systems for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.
6. The excessive transfer of conventional arms, in particular to areas of conflict, is one of our main preoccupations. We are appalled by the continuing injuries to civilians caused by anti-personnel landmines. We urge States to become party to the 1980 Conventional Weapons Convention and to participate in its review conference this fall in an effort to strengthen multilateral controls over anti-personnel landmines. We urge all countries to support full implementation of the UN Register of Conventional Arms, and note that Article 26 of the UN Charter calls for "the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources". Regional organizations can help promote transparency and confidence-building measures that reduce excessive stockpiling of conventional weapons. We shall work with others for effective and responsible export controls on arms and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies.
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7. New approaches are needed in the UN and elsewhere to deal with emerging global challenges such as environmental degradation, unsustainable population growth, mass displacement of victims of conflict and involuntary migration across borders. Initiatives such as the UN Secretary-General's Agenda for Development that highlight the linkages between economic, social and political issues could make an important contribution to international stability. We commit ourselves to working with other Member States to build on it. We also recognize the importance of non-governmental organizations in the UN's work on economic and social development, including human rights and humanitarian assistance, and believe that greater coordination of their efforts with those of the UN and other organizations would benefit the world community. We reiterate our firm belief in the necessity for the international community to promote efficient means to respond promptly to humanitarian emergencies, and support the work of the WEU in this area.
8. Respect for the rights of the individual is at the heart of a durable, secure and prosperous international order. We will work to promote good governance and democratic accountability, which are the surest guarantees of respect for universal human rights and fundamental freedoms. We condemn all forms of discrimination and intolerance, including aggressive nationalism and the mistreatment of persons belonging to minorities. We call upon all States to protect the rights set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and to ratify and comply full with international Covenants and other multilateral human rights instruments. We reaffirm our support for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and his coordinating role on human rights throughout the UN system. We call for the strengthening of international mechanisms of accountability for human rights violations, and on governments to cooperate fully with courts, tribunals and investigative commissions, including on the effective pursuit of individual cases within the bounds of international and domestic law.
9. We restate our resolve to defeat all forms of terrorism. Following recent outrages, we agree to share more intensively our experiences of, and lessons learned from, major terrorist incidents, and to strengthen our cooperation in all areas of counter-terrorism, including research and technology. We call upon all States that assist terrorists to renounce terrorism and to deny financial support, the use of their territory or any other means of support to terrorist organizations. We attach particular importance to measures to impede the ability of terrorist organizations to raise funds, and urge other governments to strenuously enforce laws against terrorist activity and join existing treaties and conventions against terrorism. In pursuit of these shared aims, we charge our terrorism experts group to report to a ministerial level meeting on specific, cooperative measures to deter, prevent, and investigate terrorist acts. These sessions should be held prior to our next meeting.
10. Transnational criminal organizations are a growing threat to the security of our nations. They undermine the integrity of financial systems, breed corruption, and weaken emerging democracies and developing countries around the world. To counter their criminal activities effectively, we will work to reinforce existing institutions, strengthen our cooperation, exchange of information, and assistance to other nations. Sanctuaries provided by some countries to transnational criminal organizations and their agents create a major difficulty in the implementation of justice. We all agree to cooperate more closely together, and with others, to ensure that they cannot escape justice by crossing borders. We encourage all governments to adhere to and implement relevant international conventions and the recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force. We recognize that ultimate success requires all Governments to provide for effective measures to prevent the laundering of proceeds from drug trafficking and other serious crimes. To implement our commitments in the fight against transnational organized crime, we have established a group of senior experts with a temporary mandate to look at existing arrangements for cooperation both bilateral and multilateral, to identify significant gaps and options for improved coordination and to propose practical action to fill such gaps. The group will report back to the Summit in 1996.
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11. After five decades of division, we now have the historic opportunity to establish in all of Europe democracy, market economy, stability, peace and prosperity. We strongly support the contribution of the European Union to stability and cooperation through its Europe Agreements with Central European countries and the Baltic States as well as through Partnership Agreements with Russia, Ukraine and other newly independent States. We encourage States to take full advantage of the opportunities afforded by the Pact on Stability in Europe and NATO's Partnership for Peace programme for enhancing security and stability in the whole of Europe. We encourage other multilateral fora and arrangements to assist in the integration of Europe. We are pleased with the steps taken at the Budapest Summit last year to strengthen the capabilities of the OSCE, and we will contribute to the OSCE study into a security model for Europe for the 21st century.
12. We are deeply concerned by the continuing escalation of hostilities in Bosnia, especially in the area of Sarajevo. We appeal to all parties to establish an immediate moratorium on military operations in order to allow political negotiations, without which no lasting solution is possible, to resume as quickly as possible on the basis of the Contact Group proposals which we urge the Bosnian Serbs to accept.
13. We condemn the taking of UN hostages by the Bosnian Serbs, their deplorable shelling of civilian populations and their obstruction of UNPROFOR's freedom of movement. We demand the immediate and unconditional release of the remaining hostages, and hold the Bosnian Serb leadership accountable for their safety. We call on the Bosnian government and all other parties to renew the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and to ensure the free passage of humanitarian assistance.
14. We welcome the decision of the UN Security Council to strengthen UNPROFOR and to provide it with a rapid reaction capacity to enhance its security and its ability to protect civilians, facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance and promote conditions for a lasting peace. The Rapid Reaction Force will be under UN command, as stipulated in the Security Council resolution, and operate in accordance with UNPROFOR's existing mandate.
15. We call for renewed impetus to be given urgently to the peace process and, in this connection, we welcome the appointment of Carl Bildt as EU negotiator, and offer our strong support to him and UN negotiator Thorvald Stoltenberg in their efforts to achieve a durable settlement.
16. We call for early mutual recognition between the republics in the former Yugoslavia within their existing internationally recognized borders; recognition between Bosnia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia would be an important first step, and we urge President Milosevic to take it. The Bosnian-Croat Federation is a way to advance reconciliation, and we continue to support steps to help stabilize the situation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
17. We remain concerned about the risk of further fighting in Croatia. Both the Croatian government and the Croatian Serbs must exercise restraint. We urge the parties to honour the March 29,1994 ceasefire and to cooperate with the United Nations in implementing UNCRO's new mandate. We call for further development of the Economic Agreement between the two sides and the opening of political talks to achieve a settlement respecting the internationally recognized borders of Croatia while establishing autonomy for the Serb population on the basis of the principles underlying the Zagreb-4 Plan for Croatia.
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18. The Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty is an important building block for peace throughout the region. It is imperative that the momentum for peace be maintained. We encourage the conclusion of peace treaties between Israel and Lebanon and Syria. We pledge our firm support for the Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles. We urge Israel and the Palestinian Authority to conclude, as agreed between them, the arrangements for elections in the Palestinian Autonomous Territory and the redeployment of the Israeli Defence Forces. We also recognize the importance of the economic basis for peace, notably the need for regional integration. We reiterate our call to the League of Arab States to end its boycott of Israel.
19. We call upon the Government of Iran to participate constructively in regional and world affairs, and to desist from supporting radical groups that seek to destroy the Middle East Peace Process and destabilize the region. We also call on the Iranian Government to reject terrorism and, in particular, to withdraw its support from the continuing threats to the life of Mr. Salman Rushdie and others associated with his work. We call on all States to avoid any collaboration with Iran which might contribute to the acquisition of a nuclear weapons capability.
20. We reiterate our resolve to enforce full implementation of each and every relevant UN Security Council resolution concerning Iraq and Libya until they are complied with, and recall that such implementation would entail the reassessment of sanctions. We urge Iraq to reconsider its rejection of UN Security Council Resolution 986 which would permit the sale of oil and purchase of humanitarian goods.
21. We support the positive steps of the Algerian government towards economic reform, and believe that peace and stability provide the only durable foundation for success. We call for an end to the violence in Algeria, and urge all parties that accept non-violent and democratic principles to pursue political reconciliation through peaceful dialogue and a genuine electoral process.
22. We applaud the peaceful and democratic transition of power in South Africa, the successful holding of elections elsewhere in Southern Africa, and the Angolan peace process. These developments provide good grounds for optimism about Africa's longer term prospects. We will continue to support efforts by African leaders to prevent conflict and enhance the welfare of their populations through democratization, structural reform, and economic liberalization.
23. We condemn extremists in Burundi and Rwanda and support measures to hold them accountable for their actions, including through the International Tribunal for Rwanda. We call for greater international support for humanitarian assistance for the Rwanda/Burundi region. We support the convening of a UN and OAU-sponsored Conference on Stability and Security in the Lakes Region.
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24. We welcome the emerging dialogue and cooperation in and with the Asia-Pacific region in various forms including the ASEAN Regional Forum. We welcome China's growing participation in international and regional fora dealing with political, economic and security issues. Each of us will pursue our respective dialogues with China in the interests of a more stable and prosperous world. We look forward to a smooth transfer of government in Hong Kong in 1997, with the object of maintaining its economic prosperity and social stability.
25. We call on North Korea to observe the agreements reached at the NPT Review and Extension Conference. We believe the Agreed Framework between the United States and North Korea offers a real prospect for resolving the North Korea nuclear problem, and we are encouraged by recent developments in this regard. We call on North Korea to fulfil its commitment to the regime of IAEA safeguards and to uphold the terms of the Agreed Framework. The support of the international community can be demonstrated inter alia through participation in the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO). We also believe that progress in the North-South dialogue will contribute to peace and security on the Korean Peninsula.
26. We are concerned about the potential for conflict in Kashmir and urge all parties to pursue a peaceful settlement. To help lower tension and build confidence on the subcontinent, as well as to strengthen the framework of global security, we urge India and Pakistan to support international arms control norms, accede to the NPT and refrain from taking further steps towards ballistic missile deployment or any other measures that might precipitate a regional arms race.
27. We call on the Government of Myanmar to release Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners, without conditions, and to engage in a dialogue of reconciliation aimed at the full and early realization of democracy and national unity.
28. The South China Sea has become increasingly an area of territorial dispute. We call upon all parties to resolve their differences in a peaceful manner respecting international norms.
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29. We encourage implementation by the States of the Americas of the Miami Summit Plan Of Action to strengthen democratic institutions, eliminate the threat of terrorism, eradicate poverty and discrimination, conserve their natural environment, and negotiate the Free Trade Area of the Americas. We support the Government of Mexico's bold steps towards political reform and dialogue. We commend the effort of the Guarantor Group of the Rio Protocol to help Peru and Ecuador achieve a permanent peace between them. We support international cooperation in Haiti's economic and democratic development, and look forward to free and open legislative elections scheduled for June 25.
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Source: Released by the Halifax Summit, June 17,1995
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