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G7/8 Commitments on Oceans, 1975–2017 (N=89)

Brittaney Warren, G7 Research Group
January 5, 2018

Jump to Commitments on Oceans by Year | Commitments on Oceans by Issue | List of Commitments

See also G7/8 Conclusions on Oceans, 1975-2017 and G7/8 Compliance on Oceans Commitments, 1975-2016

The state of the world's oceans has reached a tipping point. Never before in human history has the planet's most important habitat been in such peril. Covering roughly seventy per cent of the earth's surface, the oceans control the planet's climate; produce approximately eighty per cent of its oxygen; and serve as the primary source of food for over a billion people. In spite of the immensity of the world's oceans, what was once considered inexhaustible and resilient has become finite and fragile. From the disappearance of fish stocks and coral reefs, to the growing threats of climate change, global warming, rising sea levels and the increasing pressure of excessive human use, ocean life and vital coastal habitats are being destroyed. Making matters worse are the rising threats of maritime piracy and terrorism, which pose a significant threat to global trade and security, along with the Westphalian state's monopoly of force itself. In short, if current trends continue, and if there is a failure to responsibly govern the world's oceans, there is risk of much greater problems in the near future, coming at a much accelerated pace. The deadly oil drilling accident in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, which quickly created the greatest environmental disaster in American history, showed how concentrated crises can erupt to cripple the oceans, and how hard it is for the world's greatest power, acting alone, to effectively respond. Together such challenges to the planet's oceans require effective collaboration at the international level if there is to be any hope of success.

Since 1975, the summit agenda of the Group of Seven (G7) major market democracies and now Group of Eight (G8), with Russia since 1998, has broadened considerably from macroeconomic management, energy and international trade, to include transnational issues such as the environment and climate change, crime and drugs, and a host of political-security concerns. Several of these issues directly affect and are affected by the oceans, yet no one has yet seriously considered the critical role of G8 ocean governance in the context of, and as a contribution to, G8 and global governance of the environment, energy, and maritime security – subjects that have become critical to the G7 in recent years.

Competing Schools of Thought

One school views the ocean as an economic space for development. The concept of the blue economy first emerged at the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro, known as Rio+20. It was framed within the concept of the green economy that in turn was framed within the context of sustainable development. The Blue Economy Concept Paper states that "the blue economy is a developing work initiative pioneered by SIDS [small island developing states] but relevant to all coastal states and countries with an interest in waters beyond national jurisdiction" (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs [UNDESA] 2014). It further states that the concept of the blue economy not only encompasses the ocean-based economy, but conceptualizes oceans themselves as "development spaces where spatial planning integrates conservation, sustainable use, oil and mineral wealth extraction, bio-prospecting, sustainable energy production and marine transport." In terms of the blue economy's situation in the green economy and sustainable development, the blue economy includes the principle of "improv[ing] human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities" but "it is grounded in a developing world context." Yet at its core the blue economy concept refers to the "de-coupling of socioeconomic development from environmental degradation."

The UNDESA concept paper emphasizes that the blue economy concept is led by the SIDS. However, it also emphasizes that the blue economy approach is for any coastal country as it "offers the means for the sound utilization of resources beyond national jurisdiction – the sustainable development of the common heritage of humanity; the resources of the High Seas."

UNDESA identifies the ecosystem approach as the approach that "must underpin all aspects of the Blue Economy." The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines an ecosystem approach as "a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way" (CBD undated). From this perspective, UNDESA identifies seven key blue economy issues: sustainable use of biodiversity, food security, unsustainable fisheries, climate change and managing carbon budgets (includes acidification and blue carbon sinks), marine and coastal tourism, pollution and marine debris, and governance and international cooperation. It subsequently sees six areas of "opportunities for sustainable, clean, equitable blue growth in traditional and emerging sectors." These sectors are shipping and port facilities, fisheries, tourism, aquaculture, energy, biotechnology, and submarine mining.

Despite this conceptualization of the blue economy, there remain several competing schools of thought of oceans generally.

At the Rio+20 summit four discourses on oceans were identified (Silver, Gray, Campbell et al. 2015). These were oceans as natural capital, oceans as good business, oceans as integral to Pacific SIDS and oceans as small-scale fisheries livelihoods. Each discourse supported the blue economy, but emphasized different aspects of the blue economy according to each actors' distinct interest.

More generally, environmental sociologist John Hannigan (2016) has identified four "substantially different" perspectives on the oceans. These perspectives are labelled:


Coral, deep-seabed mining, fisheries, International Maritime Organization (IMO), land base, marine, maritime, maritime pollution, maritime security, navigation, oceanographic exploration, oceans, oil spills, saltwater, sea ice, seas, seabed, tankers, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS), offshore wind, tidal energy, deep sea mining, fracking (hydraulic fracturing)


Freshwater, lakes, water, water efficiency, rivers

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Hannigan, John (2016). The Geopolitics of Deep Oceans (Cambridge: Polity Press).

Silver, Jennifer, Noella Gray, Lisa Campbell, Luke Fairbanks, Rebecca Gruby (2015), "Blue Economy and Competing Discourses in International Oceans Governance," Journal of Environment and Development 24(2).

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (undated). Ecosystem Approach.

United Nations Department on Social and Economic Affairs (2014). "Blue Economy Concept Paper," January 15.

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Commitments on Oceans by Year

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Total
Maritime security 1 1                         2
Environment         1 1           1     3
Maritime safety         1                   1
Fisheries         1   1     1         3
Monitoring                       1     1
Climate change   1                         1
Energy                             0
International cooperation                             0
Disaster risk management                             0
Self-accountability                             0
Total 1 2 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 11
Issue 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Maritime security       9 8   1     3   2     2 3 2 2 32
Environment       5                       7 1   14
Maritime safety 2   4 7                             13
Fisheries       5                     1       6
Monitoring       4                         1   5
Climate change                 1 1       1         3
Energy       1                 1           2
International cooperation       1                             1
Disaster risk management           1                         1
Self-accountability           1                         1
Total 2 0 4 31 8 2 1 0 1 4 0 2 1 1 3 10 4 2 78
Grand Total 1975–2017 89

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Commitments on Oceans by Issue

Issue Number Percentage
Maritime security 33 38%
Environment 16 18%
Maritime safety 15 17%
Fisheries 10 10%
Monitoring 6 7%
Climate change 4 5%
Energy 2 2%
International cooperation 1 1%
Disaster risk management 1 1%
Self-accountability 1 1%
Total 88 100%

Environment = general references to protecting the oceans, pollution prevention, [excludes fisheries, oil], biodiversity, ecosystem approach, marine litter, precautionary principle,
Safety = worker/seafarer safety, general references to maritime safety, tanker safety, vessels in distress, oil spills response and prevention measures
Energy = offshore wind, tidal, deep water drilling, hydraulic fracturing (fracking),
Maritime security = Law of the Seas, jurisdiction, terrorism, piracy, maritime crime,
Disaster risk management = natural disaster response (tsunamis)

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List of Commitments on Oceans

1986 Tokyo, Japan (1)

22. We urge all likeminded nations to collaborate with us, particularly in such international fora as the United Nations, the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization, drawing on their expertise to improve and extend countermeasures against terrorism and those who sponsor or support it. (maritime security)

1987 Venice, Italy (2)

1987-32. We underline our own responsibility to encourage efforts to tackle effectively environmental problems of worldwide impact such as stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, acid rains, endangered species, hazardous substances, air and water pollution, and destruction of tropical forests. (climate change)

1987-45. We welcome improvements in airport and maritime security, and encourage the work of ICAO [International Civil Aviation Organization] and IMO [International Maritime Organization] in this regard. Each of us will continue to monitor closely the activities of airlines which raise security problems. (maritime security)

1988 Toronto, Canada


1989 Paris, France


1990 Houston, USA (3)

1990-47. Efforts to protect the environment do not stop at the water's edge. Serious problems are caused by marine pollution, both in the oceans and in coastal areas. A comprehensive strategy should be developed to address land-based sources of pollution; we are committed to helping in this regard. (environment)

1990-48. We will continue our efforts to avoid oil spills, urge the early entry into force of the existing International Maritime Organization (IMO) Convention, and welcome the work of that organization in developing an international oil spills convention. (maritime safety)

1990-49. We are concerned about the impact of environmental degradation and unregulated fishing practices on living marine resources. We support cooperation in the conservation of living marine resources and recognize the importance of regional fisheries organizations in this respect. (fisheries)

1991 London, UK (1)

1991-30. a comprehensive approach to the oceans, including regional seas. The environmental and economic importance of oceans and seas means that they must be protected and sustainably managed; (environment)

1992 Munich, Germany (1)

1992-13. by ensuring the international conference on straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks in the oceans is convened as soon as possible. (fisheries)

1993 Tokyo, Japan


1994 Naples, Italy


1995 Halifax Canada (1)

1995-25: conclude successfully the work of the CSD intergovernmental panel on forests, and promote a successful UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and international consensus at the next CSD session on action to deal with the problems of the world's oceans. (fisheries)

1996 Lyon, France


1997 Denver, USA (2)


1997-18. We must strengthen our efforts to protect the world's oceans. We will work to ensure an effective and integrated effort to deal with key issues, including sustainable fishing, shipping, marine pollution from land- based and off-shore activities, and oil spill prevention and emergency response. (environment)

1997-19. In this connection, we will also enhance cooperation in monitoring the ecology in the Northern Pacific, as well as in forecasting earthquakes and tsunamis in this region. (monitoring)

1998 Birmingham, UK


1999 Köln Germany


2000 Okinawa, Japan (2)

2000-90. We will jointly cooperate with the IMO to improve maritime safety". (maritime safety)

2000-91. "We endorse efforts by the IMO to strengthen safety standards, in particular, the ships carrying dangerous or polluting cargo, and to verify implementation and enforcement of the application of international standards by flag States." (maritime safety)

2001 Genoa, Italy


2002 Kananaskis, Canada (4)

2002-182. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to accelerate the date of the installation of automatic identification systems (AIS) on certain ships to December 2004.* (maritime safety)

2002-183. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to require mandatory ship security plans and ship security officers on board ships by July 2004. (maritime safety)

2002-184. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to require mandatory port facility security plans and port facility security assessments for relevant ports serving ships engaged on international voyages by July 2004.* (maritime safety)

* The Government of the Russian Federation supports the proposal concerning installation of AIS on certain ships by December 2004, as well as the proposal concerning availability of port facility security plans and port facility security assessments for relevant ports serving ships engaged on international voyages by July 2004. However, on grounds of technical feasibility of these proposals, the Russian Federation reserves for itself the right to extend the timeframe of their implementation by the year 2006.

2002-187. G8 experts will pursue these priorities and will promote policy coherence and coordination in all relevant international organizations (ICAO, IMO, WCO, ILO), in partnership with industry. (maritime safety)

2003 Evian, France (31)

2003-67. We will build on existing work to produce reliable data products on atmosphere, land, fresh water, oceans and ecosystems. (monitoring)

2003-68. We will improve the world-wide reporting and archiving of these data and fill observational gaps of coverage in existing systems. (monitoring)

2003-69. We will develop an implementation plan to achieve these objectives by next spring's Tokyo ministerial conference. (monitoring)

2003-72. Stimulate fundamental research in renewable energies, such as solar photovoltaics, offshore wind energy, next generation wind turbines, wave/tidal and geothermal, biomass. (energy)

9. Marine Environment and Tanker Safety, 3 June 2003

By acting in accordance with the relevant United Nations Conventions, we will work towards sustainable fisheries and marine conservation.

2003-121. The ratification or acceding to and implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the overall legal framework for oceans. (maritime security)

2003-122. Develop and facilitate the use of diverse approaches and tools, including the ecosystem approach, for the management of human activities in order to protect oceans and seas and their resources, drawing on the work underway in the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). (environment)

2003-123. Maintain the productivity and biodiversity of important and vulnerable marine and coastal areas, including on the high seas. (environment)

2003-124. The urgent restoration and maintenance of fish stocks. (fisheries)

2003-125. The ratification and effective implementation of the relevant UN and, where appropriate, associated regional fisheries agreements or arrangements, noting in prticular the UN Fish Stocks Agreement. (fisheries)

2003-126. The urgent development and implementation of international plans of action under the FAO, inter alia to eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. (fisheries)

2003-127. Strengthening regional fisheries organisations, including through improved data collection and compliance with their measures by their member States. (monitoring)

2003-128. Reaffirmation of the commitments made at Doha, to clarify and improve disciplines in the context of negotiations under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures that covers fisheries subsidies, and at Johannesburg to reform subsidies that damage the environment and are otherwise incompatible with sustainable development. (fisheries)

2003-129. Address the lack of effective flag State control of fishing vessels, in particular those flying Flags of Convenience. (maritime security)

2003-130. Build capacity in marine science, information and management, through, inter alia, promoting the use of environmental impact assessments and environmental evaluation and reporting techniques, for projects or activities that are potentially harmful to the coastal and marine environments and their living and non-living resources. (environment)

2003-131. Improved co-ordination and co-operation among national agencies and international organisations, notably the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), the FAO, the Intergovernmental Ocean (international cooperation)

2003-132. The incorporation of priorities from the 1995 Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment into national, regional and international policies and initiatives. (environment)

2003-133. Establish ecosystem networks of marine protected areas, consistent with international law and based on scientific information by 2012 in our own waters and regions, and work with others to achieve the same in theirs. (environment)

2003-134. For those of us who participate in the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries of the FAO, promote responsible fisheries as embodied in this code. (fisheries)

We have agreed to take all necessary and appropriate steps to strengthen international maritime safety. We will support IMO efforts, and will take the lead within the IMO in order to:

2003-135. Work towards further accelerating the phasing out of single hulled tankers. (maritime safety)

2003-136. Address through appropriate measures the special risks posed by the carriage of the heaviest grades of oil in single hulled tankers. (maritime safety)

2003-137. Accelerate the introduction of a code in particular for flag States. AS a first step, introduce a voluntary model audit scheme with the aim of enhancing the responsibilities of flag States for the effective implementation and control of IMO instruments and to enhance supervision over recognised organisations authorised by flag States. (maritime security)

2003-138. Establish mandatory pilotage in narrow, restricted and congested waters in conformity with IMO rules and procedures. Relevant coastal States should also give consideration to the introduction, in such waters, of pilots' immediate reporting to the relevant authority of evident defects or deficiencies, and to other measures. (maritime security)

2003-139. Accelerate the adoption of guidelines on places of refuge for vessels in distress. (maritime safety)

2003-140. Enhance compensation funds to the benefit of the victims of oil pollution and review the international compensation regime. (maritime safety)

2003-141. Support efforts to improve the training of seafarers, including mandatory minimum qualifications. (maritime safety)

2003-142. We have also agreed to intensive port State control inspections and to carry them out effectively, and to make publicly available details of any ships detained; to these ends, as appropriate, to request the relevant regional bodies, such as the Paris Memorandum and the Tokyo Memorandum, to update as soon as possible existing procedures and guidelines in this sphere. (maritime security)

2003-143. We are, in addition to efforts to improve the safety regimes for tankers, committed to act on the significant environmental threat posed by large cargo vessels and their bunkers and therefore encourage the adoption of liability provisions including, where appropriate, through the ratification of relevant international liability conventions, in particular the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (Bunker Convention) and the 1996 International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substance by Sea. (maritime safety)

2003-144. We will also support efforts within the International Labour Organisation to finalise a new consolidated convention on maritime labour standards and will seriously consider the ratification of this convention when adopted. (maritime safety)

2003-165. Implementing G8 outreach to the IFIs and functional organisations such as the World Customs Organisation, the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the International Maritime Organisation to discuss areas of mutual interest in the funding and provision of counter-terrorism capacity building assistance. (maritime security)


2003-183. We also agree to develop a secure, verifiable seafarer identity document at the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and are working together towards agreeing on seafarers and port workers security requirements compatible with trade facilitation at the International Maritime Organistaion (IMO) and the ILO. (maritime security)

2003-184. We will work to ensure that other necessary requirements for passenger information are developed to a global standard. (maritime security)

2004 Sea Island, USA (8)

We reaffirm our commitment to promote and implement relevant international standards in appropriate fora such as ICAO and IMO. In this regard, we agree to the following shared principles, which underlie our initiative:

2004: 113- Work collaboratively, cooperatively, and reciprocally to protect borders and facilitate trade and travel. (maritime security)

2004: 114- Facilitate movement of travelers across international borders quickly and easily, while focusing enforcement resources on enhanced security procedures, including risk analysis methods. (maritime security)

2004: 115- Permit visa-free travel and simplify and expedite visa processing when acceptable to the receiving state. (maritime security)

2004: 116- Maximize effective information exchange among partner states as a key element of strengthening international border security. (maritime security)

2004: 117- Work cooperatively to improve screening methods for international travelers, crews, and cargo for known or emerging threats as far in advance as possible. (maritime security)

2004: 118- Make all possible efforts to ensure that travel documents are secure, resistant to fraud and globally interoperable. (maritime security)

2004: 119- Ensure effective, coordinated responses to imminent threats. (maritime security)

2004: 145- Assess and reduce terrorism-related risk in the maritime domain through focused cooperative efforts, beginning with voluntary self audits and the development of a port facilities security auditing methodology and checklist among the G8 and within the International Maritime Organization, taking into account the concept of the ICAO audit program for aviation security. (maritime security)

2005 Gleneagles, UK (2)

Regional Issues and Proliferation

2005: 16 - Six months on from the enormous tragedy of the Indian Ocean disaster on 26 December 2004, we have underlined our support for UN work on post-tsunami humanitarian aid and reconstruction, as well as confirming our commitment to reduce the risk from future disasters and to encourage reform of the humanitarian system. (disaster risk management)

2005: 138 - G8 members will conduct self audits and share experience in order to prepare recommendations for the IMO, with European members coordinating through the European Commission, on possible amendments to the checklist and guidance. (self-accountability)

2006 St. Petersburg, Russia (1)

2006 — 275: promoting international cooperation in subway, rail and road security and in raising standards in aviation, and maritime security.  (maritime security)

2007 Heiligendamm, Germany


2008 G8 Hokkaido Toyako (1)

2008-58: We emphasize the importance of expeditious discussions in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for limiting or reducing GHG emissions in the international aviation and maritime sectors, bearing in mind the distinct processes under the UNFCCC toward an agreed outcome for the post-2012 period. (climate change)

2009 L'Aquila, Italy (4)

2009-59: We will use our participation in ICAO, IMO and UNFCCC processes to reach an agreed outcome for the post-2012 period to rapidly advance towards accelerated emission reductions for the international aviation and maritime sectors. (climate change)

Piracy and Maritime Security

2009-181: We intend as well to improve coordination and cooperation with industry to ensure best security measures and practices are in effect to prevent these acts. (maritime security)

2009-182: We confirm that vessels entitled to fly the flag of any G8 member are required to respect the legal regime in Somali waters, and commit to fulfil our international legal obligations in this respect. (maritime security)

2009-183: We commit to contributing, through cooperation with international partners and coordinated bilateral programs, to achieve the goals defined by the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia — and related multilateral efforts, including the Djibouti Code of Conduct facilitated by the International Maritime Organization — and the International Contact Group for Somalia. (maritime security)

2010 Muskoka, Canada


2011 Deauville, France (2)

2011-146: [We express our continued concern regarding the serious threat of piracy, in particular emanating from Somalia.] We underline our determination to continue to respond resolutely to this threat, through a coordinated response at sea (maritime security)

2011-147: [We express our continued concern regarding the serious threat of piracy, in particular emanating from Somalia. We underline our determination to continue to respond resolutely to this threat,] by tackling longer-term regional capability development needs, including through the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, as well as the comprehensive strategy that would address the root causes of piracy and reinforce the Somali capacity. (maritime security)

2012 Camp David, US (1)

2012-21. We are committed to establishing and sharing best practices on energy production, including exploration in frontier areas and the use of technologies such as deep water drilling and hydraulic fracturing, where allowed, to allow for the safe development of energy sources, taking into account environmental concerns over the life of a field. (energy)

2013 Lough Erne Summit, UK (1)

2013-144: [We will pursue ambitious and transparent action] internationally, in the UNFCCC, complemented by actions addressed through other relevant fora, including but not limited to:] the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), where we continue to work together on further measures to address the issue of shipping emissions; (climate change)

2014 Brussels, Belgium (3)

2014-107: We continue to support the consistent implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests, including by building on the land partnerships we launched in 2013 and the Global Agriculture and Food Security Programme. (fisheries)

2014-134: international law and internationally recognised principles of jurisdiction in international waters.] (maritime security)

2014-135: [We remain committed to international cooperation to combat] other maritime crime, consistent with international law and internationally recognised principles of jurisdiction in international waters. (maritime security)

2015 Schloss Elmau, Germany (11)

2015-94: [Based on our common values and principles we are committed to:] Maintaining a Rules-Based Maritime Order (maritime security)

2015-95: [Based on our common values and principles we are committed to:]

Achieving Maritime Security (maritime security)

2015-118: We are committed to maintaining a rules-based order in the maritime domain based on the principles of international law, in particular as reflected in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. (maritime security)

Protection of the Marine Environment

2015-228: The G7 commits to priority actions and solutions to combat marine litter as set out in the annex, stressing the need to address land- and sea-based sources, removal actions, as well as education, research and outreach. (environment)

2015-229: We are committed to taking a precautionary approach in deep sea mining activities. (environment)

2015-230: [We are committed] to conducting environmental impact assessments [with respect to deep sea mining] (environment)

2015-231: [We are committed to] scientific research [with respect to deep sea mining] (environment)

2015-339: We thus reaffirm our support for the consistent implementation of and strive to align our own ODA-supported investments with the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) and the CFS Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (fisheries)

G7 Action Plan to Combat Marine Litter Overarching Principles

2015-321: The G7 countries: Commit to the improvement of countries' systems as a key goal of the action plan, to prevent, reduce and remove marine litter, including the below listed priority actions. (environment)

2015-322: [The G7 countries] support development and implementation of national or regional action plans to reduce waste entering inland and coastal waters and ultimately becoming marine litter, as well as to remove existing waste. (environment)

2015-323: [The G7 countries] Support the use of a broad range of policy toolkits and available instruments, including economic incentives, market-based instruments, and public private partnerships to support implementation of actions to effectively combat marine litter. (environment)

2016 Ise-Shima (4)

Maritime Security

2016-147: We reiterate our commitment to maintaining a rules-based maritime order in accordance with the principles of international law as reflected in UNCLOS, to peaceful dispute settlement supported by confidence building measures and including through legal means as well as to sustainable uses of the seas and oceans, and to respecting freedom of navigation and overflight. (maritime security)

2016-148: We endorse the G7 Foreign Ministers' Statement on Maritime Security. (maritime security)

2016-177: We reaffirm our commitment to address marine litter, recognizing that our efforts on resource efficiency and the 3Rs also contribute to the prevention and reduction of marine litter, particularly 30 plastic, from land-based sources. (environment)

2016-178: Furthermore, we support scientific work to enhance global ocean observation and assessment for the science-based management, conservation and sustainable use of marine resources. (monitoring)

2017 Taormina, Italy (2)

2017-25: We reaffirm our commitment to maintaining a rules-based order in the maritime domain based on the principles of international law, including as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (maritime security)

2017-26: [We reaffirm our commitment to] the peaceful settlement of maritime disputes through diplomatic and legal means, including arbitration. (maritime security)

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