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2020 G7 USA Virtual Summit Final Compliance Report

17 March 2020 to 6 May 2021
Meagan Byrd
and the G7 Research Group

8 June 2021

The 2020 G7 USA Virtual Summit Final Compliance Report reviews progress made on 20 selected commitments set out at the 2020 Virtual Summit hosted by the United States on 16 March 2020 in response to the COVID-19 crisis. It covers G7 actions taken during the period of 17 March 2020 to 6 May 2021, building on the earlier Interim Compliance Report (see Table A). The introduction and summary findings are listed below, with rankings by country and by issue.

Download the full 464-page report here.

Watch the briefing on the findings, recorded on 9 June 2021

The report contains the following sections, which can be downloaded separately:

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Introduction

This compliance report covers an unusual year in the history of the G7. On 16 March 2020, under the presidency of the United States and President Donald Trump, G7 leaders held their first virtul extraordinary summit to plan a response to the pandemic caused by the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. They were scheduled to meet in person on 10-12 June at Camp David, but as the pandemic worsened plans shifted from an in-person format to a virtual one. On 20 May 2020, the summit was postponed indefinitely. Although President Trump considered holding the summit later in the year, none took place. So, for the first time since 1975 there was no full-strength summit with the usual prepared agenda.

This final report thus assesses compliance with the commitments made at the extraordinary March summit in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It assesses actions taken by G7 members between 17 March 2020 and 6 May 2021, building on the interim report that assessed actions taken up to 25 February. It is being released just before the Cornwall Summit, under the UK presidency on 11-13 June 2021, which will be the first in-person summit to take place since 2019. All previous compliance reports, including the 2020 G7 Virtual Summit Interim Compliance Report, are available at the G7 Information Centre website at www.g7.utoronto.ca/compliance.

For its assessment of compliance with the 2020 Virtual Summit commitments, the G7 Research Group researchers selected 20 priority commitments from the total of 26 commitments made on 16 March 2020. Researchers rely on publicly available information, documentation and media reports of actions taken beginning the day after the summit.

The G7 Research Group has been producing annual compliance reports since 1996. It began publishing interim reports in 2002 to assess progress at the time of the transition from the outgoing G7 presidency to the incoming presidency each 1 January. These reports are offered to the general public and to policy makers, academics, civil society, the media and interested citizens around the world in an effort to make the work of the G7 more transparent and accessible, and to provide scientific data to enable meaningful analysis of the impact of this unique informal international institution.

Based at the University of Toronto and founded in 1987, the G7 Research Group strives to be the leading independent source of information and analysis on the institutions, performance, issues and participants of the G7 summit and system of global governance. It is a global network of scholars, students and professionals. The group oversees the G7 Information Centre, which publishes freely available research on the G7 as well as official documents issued by the G7.

This report is produced entirely on a voluntary basis. It receives no direct financial support from any source. It comes from a process entirely insulated from the other major activities of the G7 Research Group, such as its pre-summit conferences sponsored by various institutions or the "background books" produced GT Media.

To ensure the accuracy, comprehensiveness and integrity of these reports, comments and suggestions are always welcome. Indeed, this is a living document, and the scores can be recalibrated if new material becomes available. All feedback remains anonymous and is never attributed. Responsibility for this report's contents lies exclusively with the report's authors and the analysts of the G7 Research Group.

The work of the G7 Research Group would not be possible without the steadfast dedication of many people around the world. This report is the product of a team of energetic and hard-working analysts led by Meagan Byrd, chair of summit studies, and her team of compliance directors, lead analysts and analysts. It would also not be possible without the efforts of Professor John Kirton, director of the G7 Research Group, Brittaney Warren, director of policy analysis, Dr. Ella Kokotsis, director of accountability, and Madeline Koch, executive director. We are also indebted to the many people who provide feedback on our drafts, whose comments are always carefully considered in the published report.

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Summary

The G7 Research Group's Final Compliance Report on the 2020 Virtual Summit in response to COVID-19 assesses the compliance of the G7 members with 20 priority commitments selected from the total of 26 they made on 16 March 2020, based on members' implementing actions taken between 17 March 2020 and 6 May 2021 (see Table A). This selection reflects the breadth and focus of the extraordinary summit's agenda, organized in short notice to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, with the understanding that a regular summit would take place three months later in June. The summit was postponed indefinitely on 20 May, so the Virtual Summit became the only G7 leaders' meeting to produce an outcome document in 2020.

Given the unusual circumstances, the Virtual Summit agenda did not cover the usual issues addressed by G7 leaders, and reflected the unusual challenges presented by the global pandemic, still in an early stage. The unusually high compliance performance also reflects the urgency of the situation.

The previous compliance reports are available for review at http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/compliance.

The Final Compliance Score

Compliance is measured on a three-point scientific scale. A score of +1 (100%) indicates full compliance with a commitment, a score of 0 (50%) indicates partial compliance or a work in progress, and a score of −1 (0%) indicates non-compliance or a failure to comply or action taken that is counter to the commitment. Table B contains the interim compliance scores.

For the period of 17 March 2020 to 6 May 2021, average compliance for the 20 commitments assessed is +0.89 (95%). This is a slight increase from the interim findings, which assessed actions taken up to 25 February 2021, but remains the highest average from the five previous compliance cycles. The 2020 scores are a significant increase from the 2019 Biarritz final compliance score of +0.58 (79%). The final compliance average from the 2018 Charlevoix Summit at +0.66 (83%) is the closest recent compliance average to the current cycle. Table C contains the compliance scores from previous years.

Table C contains the scores from previous years.

Compliance by Member

The European Union, Germany and Italy ranked first with an average compliance score of +0.95 (98%), followed by France and the United States at +0.90 (95%), and the United Kingdom and Japan at +0.85 (93%), and Canada at +0.80 (90%). This configuration differs slightly from the interim findings, which also had the EU ranked first at +0.90 (95%), but followed by France and Germany at +0.90 (95%), Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States at +0.85 (93%), Canada at +0.80 (90%), and Italy at +0.75 (88%).

The 2020 rankings also differ from the 2019 final compliance report where the European Union, Germany and United Kingdom were the highest scoring members. In the 2019 final compliance report, Italy was also the lowest scoring member.

Compliance by Commitment

Of the 20 commitments assessed, 16 had compliance of +1.00 (100%). Ten of those 16 commitments are on health and three are on trade, one on global economy and two on international cooperation. The lowest compliance came on the global economy commitment on restoring growth at 0 (50%).

The Compliance Gap Between Members

These final results from the 2020 Virtual Summit show a difference of 0.15 between the highest and lowest compliance scores of members.

Future Research and Reports

The information contained within this report provides G7 members and other stakeholders with an indication of the G7 members' compliance with 20 commitments for the period beginning immediately after the 2020 virtual summit on 16 March 2020 until 6 May 2021. As with previous compliance reports, this report has been produced as an invitation for others to provide additional or more complete information on G7 members' compliance. Comments are always welcomed and would be considered as part of an analytical reassessment. Please send your feedback to g7@utoronto.ca.

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Table A: 2020 USA Virtual Summit Priority Commitments Selected for Assessment*

  Commitment
1 "We are committed to marshalling the full power of our governments to: Coordinate on necessary public health measures to protect people at risk from COVID-19"
2 "By acting together, we will work to resolve the health … risks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic"
3 "We will work hard to protect the health and safety of everyone in our countries."
4 "We will enhance our efforts to strengthen health systems in our countries and globally."
5 "We will pool epidemiologic and other data to better understand and fight the virus.
6 We will increase coordinated research efforts, including through voluntary support for the global alliance"
7 "We will support the launch of joint research projects funded by both public and private resources, and the sharing of facilities, towards rapid development, manufacture and distribution of treatments and a vaccine, adhering to the principles of efficacy, safety, and accessibility."
8 "We will make efforts to increase the availability of medical equipment where it is most needed."
9 "We will coordinate with online platforms to maximize public access to the latest correct and relevant official information, in recognition that millions of citizens receive information and news via social media."
10 "We fully support the World Health Organization in its global mandate to lead on disease outbreaks and emergencies with health consequences, leaving no geographical vacuum"
11 "We will coordinate our efforts to delay the spread of the virus, including through appropriate border management measures."
12 "We are committed to doing whatever is necessary to ensure a strong global response through closer cooperation and enhanced coordination of our efforts."
13 "We are committed to marshalling the full power of our governments to: Encourage science, research, and technology cooperation."
14 "We are committed to marshalling the full power of our governments to: Restore confidence, growth, and protect jobs"
15 "We resolve to coordinate measures and do whatever it takes, using all policy tools, to achieve strong growth in the G7 economies"
16 "[We resolve to ] … safeguard against downside risks."
17 "In facing the economic challenge, we are determined not only to restore the level of growth anticipated before the COVID-19 pandemic"
18 "We are committed to marshalling the full power of our governments to: Support global trade and investment"
19 "We will address disturbances to international supply chains"
20 "[We will] … continue our work to facilitate international trade."

* For the full list of commitments, please contact the G7 Research Group at g7@utoronto.ca.

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Table B: 2020 G7 USA Virtual Summit Final Compliance Scores

    Canada France Germany Italy Japan United Kingdom United States European Union Average
1 Health: Public Health Measures +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
2 Health: Addressing Health +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
3 Health: Protecting Health and Safety +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
4 Health: Strengthening Health Systems +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
5 Health: Data Sharing 0 0 +1 +1 0 0 +1 +1 +0.50 75%
6 Health: Coordinated Research Efforts +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
7 Health: Joint Research Projects +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
8 Health: Medical Equipment +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
9 Health: Online Platforms +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
10 Health: Supporting the World Health Organization +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
11 Health: Delaying the Spread of COVID-19 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
12 International Cooperation: Global Response +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 +1 +0.88 94%
13 International Cooperation: Science, Research and Technology +1 +1 +1 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 +0.88 94%
14 Global Economy: Restoring Confidence and Growth 0 +1 +1 1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +0.88 94%
15 Global Economy: Economic Growth 0 +1 +1 −1 0 0 0 +1 +0.25 63%
16 Global Economy: Downside Risk +1 +1 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +0.88 94%
17 Global Economy: Restoring Growth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 50%
18 Trade: Supporting Trade and Investment +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
19 Trade: International Supply Chains +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
20 Trade: Facilitating International Trade +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
  2020 Final Compliance Average +0.80 +0.90 +0.90 +0.90 +0.85 +0.85 +0.85 +0.95 +0.89 95%
90% 95% 95% 95% 93% 93% 93% 98%

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Table C: 2020 G7 USA Virtual Summit Final Compliance Scores by Member

 

2020

2019

2018

Final

Interim

Final

2nd interim

1st interim

Final

Interim

European Union

+0.95

98%

+0.95

98%

+0.71

86%

+0.67

83%

+0.52

76%

+0.90

95%

+0.85

93%

Germany

+0.95

98%

+0.85

93%

+0.86

93%

+0.67

83%

+0.48

74%

+0.50

75%

+0.40

70%

Italy

+0.95

98%

+0.75

88%

+0.19

60%

+0.10

55%

−0.29

36%

+0.50

75%

+0.15

58%

France

+0.90

95%

+0.90

95%

+0.67

83%

+0.76

88%

+0.33

67%

+0.65

83%

+0.45

73%

United States

+0.90

95%

+0.85

93%

+0.29

64%

+0.19

60%

+0.05

53%

+0.47

74%

+0.24

62%

United Kingdom

+0.85

93%

+0.85

93%

+0.81

90%

+0.76

88%

+0.43

72%

+0.85

93%

+0.70

85%

Canada

+0.80

90%

+0.80

90%

+0.62

81%

+0.48

74%

+0.05

53%

+0.80

90%

+0.70

85%

Japan

+0.85

83%

+0.85

93%

+0.48

74%

+0.38

69%

+0.38

69%

+0.68

84%

+0.58

79%

Average

+0.89

94%

+0.85

93%

+0.58

79%

+0.50

75%

+0.24

62%

+0.66

83%

+0.51

76%

Spread

0.15

 

0.10

 

0.67

 

0.66

 

0.81

 

0.45

0.70

 

 

2018

2017

2016

Final

Interim

Final

Interim

Final

Interim

European Union

+0.90

95%

+0.85

93%

+0.95

98%

+0.94

97%

+0.67

84%

+0.91

96%

Germany

+0.50

75%

+0.40

70%

+0.63

82%

+0.44

72%

+0.67

84%

+0.55

78%

France

+0.65

83%

+0.45

73%

+0.68

84%

+0.50

75%

+0.26

63%

+0.27

64%

United States

+0.47

74%

+0.24

62%

+0.17

59%

+0.13

57%

+0.63

82%

+0.82

91%

Italy

+0.50

75%

+0.15

58%

+0.37

69%

+0.31

66%

+0.21

61%

+0.18

59%

United Kingdom

+0.85

93%

+0.70

85%

+0.84

92%

+0.56

78%

+0.53

77%

+0.64

82%

Canada

+0.80

90%

+0.70

85%

+0.68

84%

+0.44

72%

+0.58

79%

+0.55

78%

Japan

+0.68

84%

+0.58

79%

+0.47

74%

+0.25

63%

+0.28

64%

+0.18

59%

Average

+0.66

83%

+0.51

76%

+0.59

80%

+0.44

72%

+0.49

75%

+0.51

76%

Spread

0.45

0.70

0.78

0.81

0.46

0.73

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Table D: 2020 G7 USA Virtual Summit Final Compliance Scores by Issue

1

Global Economy: Downside Risk

+1.00

100%

Health: Addressing Health

Health: Coordinated Research Efforts

Health: Delaying the Spread of COVID-19

Health: Joint Research Projects

Health: Medical Equipment

Health: Online Platforms

Health: Protecting Health and Safety

Health: Public Health Measures

Health: Strengthening Health Systems

Health: Supporting the World Health Organization

International Cooperation: Global Response

International Cooperation: Science, Research and Technology

Trade: Facilitating International Trade

Trade: International Supply Chains

Trade: Supporting Trade and Investment

17

Global Economy: Restoring Confidence and Growth

+0.88

94%

18

Global Economy: Economic Growth

+0.50

75%

Health: Data Sharing

20

Global Economy: Restoring Growth

0

50%

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