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2008 Hokkaido-Toyako G8 Summit
Final Compliance Report
10 July 2008 to 26 June 2009
Prepared by Allison Martell, Sarah Yun, Erin Fitzgerald and Marina Larionova
with Jenilee Guebert,
the University of Toronto G8 Research Group
and the State University Higher School of Economics (Moscow) G8 Research Centre
30 June 2009
The 2008 Hokkaido-Toyako G8 Summit Final Compliance Report reviews progress made on selected commitments set out at the 2008 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit for the period of 10 July 2008 to 26 June 2009. The preface and summary of the findings are listed below. The 2008 Final Compliance Scores and Summary Compliance Scores since 1996 are also listed below. The 2008 Interim Compliance Report, released in February 2009, is available here.
The report contains the following sections, which can be downloaded separately:
Each year since 1996, the G8 Research Group has produced a compliance report on the progress made by the G8 members in meeting commitments made by leaders at their annual summit. Since 2002, the group has published an interim report, timed to assess progress at the moment of transition between one country’s year as host and the next. A final compliance report is then issued just prior the subsequent G8 summit. These reports monitor and assess each country’s efforts to comply with a carefully chosen selection of the many commitments included in the communiqués. They are offered to the general public and to policy makers, scholars, civil society, the media and interested citizens around the world in an effort to make the work of the G8 more transparent, accessible, and accountable, and to provide scientific data to enable the meaningful analysis of this unique, informal institution. These compliance reports are available on the G8 Information Centre website.
The G8 Research Group is an independent institution based at the University of Toronto. Founded in 1987, it is a global network of scholars, professionals and students interested in the activities of the G8. The group oversees the G8 Information Centre, which publishes, free of charge, analysis and research on the G8, and makes available official documents issued by the G8.
For the 2008 Final Compliance report, 20 priority commitments were selected from the 296 identified by the G8 Research Group at the Hokkaido-Toyako Summit, hosted by Japan, from 7 to 9 July 2008. This report assesses the results of compliance with those 20 commitments as of 26 June 2009. The G8 Research Group in Toronto has collaborated with a team at the State University Higher School of Economics (HSE) in Moscow, led by Marina Larionova, which worked specifically on the reports for Russia and Italy, which will host the summit on 8 to 10 July 2009. This collaboration builds on the combined efforts of both teams in 2007 and 2008.
To produce its compliance assessments, the G8 Research Group relies on publicly available information, documentation and media reports. In an ongoing effort to ensure the accuracy, integrity and comprehensiveness of these reports, we encourage comments and suggestions. This report serves as a living document, and scores can be recalibrated if additional relevant material becomes available. Any feedback remains anonymous and is not attributed. Responsibility for this report’s contents lies exclusively with the authors and analysts of the G8 Research Group.
The work of the G8 Research Group would not be possible without the steadfast dedication of many people around the world. In particular, this report is the product of a team of energetic and hard-working analysts directed impressively by Sarah Yun and Erin Fitzgerald, chairs of the student executive, as well as Allison Martell, Director of the Compliance Unit, with the support of Dr. Ella Kokotsis, Director of Research, and Jenilee Guebert, Senior Researcher.
G8 Research Group
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The University of Toronto G8 Research Group has completed its thirteenth annual Final Compliance Report. It is based on an analysis of compliance by the G8 member and the European Union with 20 priority commitments from the 2008 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit and covers the period from 10 July 2008 to 26 June 2009. Future revisions of this report will address actions taken between 26 June 2009 and L’Aquila G8 Summit on 8 to 10 July 2009.
This report analyzes compliance with 20 individual commitments, as follows:
The Final Compliance Scores are identified in Table A. They indicate that from July 2008 to June 2009, the G8 and the EU received an average compliance score of 0.48. This is slightly lower than the 2007 average of 0.51, but higher than the 2006 average of 0.47.
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Individual scores are assigned on a scale of +1, 0 and -1, where +1 indicates full compliance with the stated commitment, 0 is awarded for partial compliance or a work in progress, and -1 is reserved for those countries that fail to comply or that take action that is directly opposite to the stated substance of the commitment. Compliance in this report is assessed from the conclusion of the 2008 Summit (on or after 10 July 2008) with the exception of a very few cases where past action has made further compliance impossible. For example, if a country has previously ratified a treaty or convention, it cannot be expected to ratify it a second time to meet a subsequent collective summit commitment, so past compliance in such cases is considered as current compliant behaviour.
The compliance assessments within this report serve to justify the scores assigned, but do not seek to explain overall trends in compliance scores for this summit year. This report therefore provides the analytical assessments to support each country’s score across the 20 priority commitments selected, but reserves judgment or explanatory rationale on the reason for the overall score. The analytic framework and methodology for determining commitments and assessing compliance is consistent from year to year and is outlined in the G8 Research Group’s compliance manual, available on G8 Information Centre at www.g8.utoronto.ca/compliance.
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Compliance by Member
In this report, score rankings for G8 member are in line with past trends. The United Kingdom is in its average position, which is first. Japan also holds steady at its long-term average rank, sixth. Italy is in last place, which is also its average rank. Nearly half of the G8 is within one rank of its historical average – Canada is third, but second overall; Germany is in fourth, but fifth overall; Russia is in seventh, but eighth overall; France is in eighth, but seventh overall. The European Union is ranked in fifth, despite its third place overall. But the only real surprise may be the United States, which has ranked substantially higher than usual, tied for first, though historically it is ranked fourth.
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The Compliance Gap between Countries
The difference between the highest and lowest G8 member compliance scores is 0.70. This is lower than last year’s gap of 0.74, and just slightly higher than this year’s interim gap of 0.67. It is also substantially smaller than the largest interim compliance gap, 0.90, recorded after the 2005 Gleneagles Summit.
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Compliance in Summit Priority Issue Areas
Three of Japan’s priority issue areas going into the Hokkaido-Toyako Summit were climate change, the world economy and African development. This report assesses a number of commitments in the documents that correspond to these priorities. Compliance scores varied substantially. Compliance with commitments drawn from the World Economy communiqué averaged a score of +0.84, well above the overall compliance score. Compliance on the environment and climate change also showed higher than average compliance, at an average of +0.64. Commitments drawn from development and Africa, however, show relatively low scores, averaging +0.26.
The average compliance score rose substantially between this year’s interim and final reports, and the source of that increase can be revealed in part by looking at summit priority issue areas. Compliance rose by a substantial 0.56 between the interim and final reports for commitments on development and Africa, but only 0.25 for commitments on the environment and climate change, and 0.19 for commitments on the world economy.
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The information contained within this report provides G8 member countries and other stakeholders with an indication of their compliance performance in the post-Hokkaido-Toyako period. As with previous compliance reports, this report has been produced as an invitation for others to provide additional or more complete information on country compliance. As always, comments are welcomed and would be considered as part of an analytical reassessment. Please send your feedback to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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In addition to these compliance reports, the G8 Research Group conducts special studies that use additional compliance assessments of commitments made in current or previous years. These studies, with a more complete data base that uses both the regular and additional assessments, will have different aggregate results than those reported here. Other special studies focus on assessing compliance with multiyear commitments, with a focus on those made since 1997 that are due to be delivered by the summit in 2010. Other special studies seek to explain compliance, especially in the areas of finance and development, climate change and health, with a focus on how G8 leaders can craft their summit commitments in ways that contain compliance “catalysts” that improve the likelihood of compliance over the subsequent year.
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|2||Energy: Efficiency and Diversification ||1||0||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||0.89|
|3||Intellectual Property Rights ||1||0||1||1||1||1||0||1||1||0.78|
|5||Climate Change: Mid-term Goals ||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||-1||1||0.78|
|6||Energy Efficiency ||1||1||0||0||-1||1||1||1||1||0.56|
|7||Climate Change: CCS ||1||-1||1||-1||1||-1||1||1||1||0.33|
|9||Africa: Official Development Assistance ||1||-1||1||-1||1||1||1||1||0||0.44|
|10||Health Systems and Infectious Disease ||1||1||1||1||0||0||1||1||1||0.78|
|11||Health: Neglected Tropical Diseases ||0||-1||-1||-1||0||-1||1||1||-1||-0.33|
|13||Africa: Trade ||0||0||1||0||0||-1||1||1||1||0.33|
|15||Africa: Peace Support ||1||0||1||1||1||0||1||1||0||0.67|
|16||Africa: Food and Agriculture ||0||1||1||1||1||-1||0||0||1||0.44|
|19||Regional Security ||1||0||0||-1||-1||0||1||1||-1||0.00|
|20||Climate Change: Developing Countries ||1||1||1||-1||1||0||1||1||0||0.56|
|2008 Final Compliance Average||0.75||0.2||0.6||0.10||0.35||0.25||0.80||0.80||0.55||0.48|
|2008 Interim Compliance Average||0.20||-0.05||0.40||-0.20||-0.10||0.05||0.45||0.45||0.20||0.16|
|2007 Final Compliance Average||0.65||0.52||0.57||0.17||0.30||0.30||0.70||0.91||0.48||0.51|
|2007 Interim Compliance Average||0.22||0.17||0.48||0.13||0.04||0.17||0.61||0.78||0.39||0.33|
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|Lyon||Denver||Birmingham||Cologne||Okinawa||Genoa||Kananaskis||Kananaskis||Evian||Evian||Sea Island||Sea Island|
G8 + EU
Total commitments assessed
|Summit||Gleneagles||Gleneagles||St Petersburg||St Petersburg||Heiligendamm||Heiligendamm||Hokkaido-Toyako||Hokkaido-Toyako|
|G8 + EU||0.47||0.65||0.36||0.47||0.33||0.51||0.16||0.48|
|Total commitments assessed||21||21||20||20||23||23||20||20|
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Professor John Kirton, Director, G8 Research Group
Professor Marina Larionova, Chair, HSE Research Team
Dr. Ella Kokotsis, Director of Analytical Research, G8 Research Group
Sarah Yun, Chair, G8 Research Group
Erin Fitzgerald, Vice-Chair, G8 Research Group
Allison Martell, Chair, Compliance Unit
Jenilee Guebert, Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
Mark Rakhmangulov, HSE Research Team Leader
Netila Demneri, Assistant Chair, Compliance Unit
Mila Khodskaya, Assistant Chair, Compliance Unit
Sam Plett, Assistant Chair, Compliance Unit
|Nike Adebowale||Sahar Kazranian||Shiva Logarajah|
|Sandro Gianella||Denitza Koev||Egor Ouzikov|
|Kenta Hatamochi||Miranda Lin||Sam Plett|
Analysts at the University of Toronto
|Natalie Antonowicz||Geneva Fong||Rukshan Mehta|
|Mickal Aranha||Nicole Formosa||Amelie Meyer-Robinson|
|John Ashbourne||Charlotte Freeman-Shaw||Jim Mylonas|
|Charlene Barker||Daniel Fusca||Ryerson Neal|
|Meaghan Barrett||Krista Gallagher||Miyoun Oh|
|Jesse Beatson||Naregh Galoustian||Djastin Park|
|Aberdeen Berry||Daniel Gatto||Surkhab Peerzada|
|Vanessa Bertone||Aaron Ghobarah||Kayla Pries|
|Amartya Biswas||Dmitry Goldman||Shakir Rahim|
|Sofi Blazeski||Igor Gontcharov||Maria Robson|
|Stephan Bundi||Colum Grove-White||Adam Romanov|
|Nicole Cargill||Erin Haines||Julien Russell Brunet|
|Ailsa Chau||Jasmine Hamade||Luca Sarcanin|
|Claire Chow||Kabilan Kanagalingam||Andrei Sedoff|
|Christopher Cosack||Tala Khoury||Alicja Serafin|
|Nikola Cvetkovic||Margaret Kim||Hiba Sha'ath|
|Anthony Darcovich||Marianne Madeline Lau||Hélène Smertnik|
|Adrienne Davidson||Lucy Isabel Leiderman||Jesse Sperling|
|Isabel Dimitrov||Chiara Magboo||Catherine Tsalikis|
|Darcie Dixon||Adriano Marchese||Harlan Tufford|
|Danara Dourdoussova||Leroy Massey||Jayme Turney|
|Fatima Ul-Haq||Steven Wang||Joshua Xiong|
|Liliane Vicente||Yinsey Wang||Tatjana Zalar|
|Julienne Vipond||Amy Willis||Sam Zhao|
|Sabina Voicu||Andrew Wright|
Analysts at the State University Higher School of Economics (Moscow)
|Igor Churkin||Yulia Ovchinnikova||Yuriy Zaytsev|
|Natalia Churkina||Mark Rakhmangulov|
|Tatiana Lanshina||Arina Shadrikova|
Central Editing Committee
|Natalie Antonowicz||Adrien Davidson||Conrad Lochovsky|
|John Ashbourne||Sarah Ellis||Ronan MacParland|
|Jane Bao||Geneva Fong||Lauren Peruzza|
|Charlene Barker||Daniel Fusca||Alicja Serafin|
|Meaghan Barrett||Daniel Gatto||Hiba Sha'ath|
|Nadia Bucciarelli||Jasmine Hamade||Harlan Tufford|
|Nikola Cvetkovic||Miranda Lin|
|Danara Dourdoussova||Marianne Madeline Liu|
|This Information System is provided by the University of Toronto Libraries and the G7 Research Group at the University of Toronto.|
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This page was last updated July 01, 2009.
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